Early experiences have profound and literary life and death outcomes for young children. “Between 25 to 30 percent of these infants and toddlers, receiving custodial care without human interaction, died” (Wittmer, D. S., & Petersen, S. H. (p.112). The need for human interaction is vital in a child’s survival as shown in research. The website Start Early.org (From Neurons to Neighborhoods | Start Early (Links to an external site.)) “Young children who lack at least one loving and consistent caregiver in the earliest years may suffer severe and long-lasting development problems.” The primary need for love, affection, nurturing and skin-to-skin contact is most pertinent in the child’s environment to establish proper brain development. Thus, when the precursors are met in the beginning stages and development occurs, other causes that may impede a need for concern such as stress, violence, drugs and alcohol may intercede as the environmental hazards in a child’s brain development.


From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. National Research Council; Institute of Medicine; Board on Children

https://www.nap.edu/catalog/9824/from-neurons-to-neighborhoods-the-science-of-early-childhood-development (Links to an external site.)

Wittmer, D. S., & Petersen, S. H. (2016). Chapter 5 Genetics and Prenatal Development. In Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning: A Relationship-Based Approach (4th Edition, pp. 112). Pearson.